Salur is located on the banks of River Vegavathi at 18.5333°N 83.2167°E. It has an average elevation of 118 metres (387 ft). It is bounded by Makkuva, Bobbili, Ramabhadrapuram and Pachipenta mandals of Andhra Pradesh state. Salur is surrounded with green forests and chain of hills on two sides and by River Vegavathi on the other two sides.
The climate of the town is generally characterized by high humidity almost all round the year, oppressive summer and seasonal rainfall. The temperature varies between 17 and 40 degrees of Celsius. Average annual rainfall is 1074.0 mm. The nature of the soil is generally black cotton soil.
As of 2011 Census of India, the town had a population of 49,500. The total population constitute, 24,021 males, 25,479 females and 4,900 children, in the age group of 0–6 years. The average literacy rate stands at 73.22% with 32,656 literates, approximately equal to the national average of 73.00%.